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Most Colombians identify with the various ethnicities on the basis of skin color, ancestry or social status. The Mestizo ethnic group claims a Before Spanish occupation of Colombia, different tribes of the Amerindians resided in the region. These tribes were remarkable potters and goldsmiths, as witnessed through numerous archaeological treasures from this period. The interactions between the indigenous community with the advancing Spanish conquerors gave rise to the Mestizo population.

The Mestizo primarily inhabited the Andean highlands, where they were involved in agriculture, but began moving into the urban areas from the s onward. In modern Colombia, the ethnic group is found scattered throughout the country and mostly speak the Spanish language. Colombians of African descent make up African slaves were brought to Colombia by the Spanish to work in the colonial era mines and plantations.

The indigenous people who worked on the plantations were dying in large numbers due to harsh working conditions. The Mulatto population was a result of the interactions between the black and white communities.

Turks belong the Middle East area, therefore they have similar ancestry proportion from the hypothetical groups than of populations living in the Caucasus and in the Middle East. At the federal level, race and ethnicity have been categorized separately.

The majority of the diaspora has been formed by Afghan refugees since the start of the Soviet—Afghan War in ; the largest numbers temporarily reside in Iran and Pakistan. August 22, What race is Caribbean? Modern Caribbean people usually further identify by their own specific ethnic ancestry, therefore constituting various subgroups, of which are: Afro-Caribbean largely descendants of bonded African slaves White Caribbean largely descendants of European colonizers and some indentured workers and Indo-Caribbean Read: How do you do a wheelie on a dirt bike?

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What is the second largest ethnic group in Russia? What is the largest ethnic group in the US today? People also asked. Who is the suspected leader of the terrorist organization that many countries hold responsible for the September 11 attack on America? When did the systematic recording and development of collections of archaeological evidence begin?

Which of these European men explored the Mississippi Valley? Indonesia is the world’s largest exporter of which of these minerals? What two bodies of water form Venezuela’s northern coastline?

What events caused the United Nations to impose sanctions on Libya in ? Study Guides. Trending Questions. Give me food and I will live give me water and I will die what am I? Has a human ever been mailed via the United States Postal Service? What is the promo code for nickelodeon basketball stars? Does Jerry Seinfeld have Parkinson’s disease? The elimination of slavery began with a free-birth law in , but total emancipation was enacted only in , becoming effective on January 1, Those blacks who achieved freedom sometimes moved into Amerindian communities, but blacks and zambos remained at the bottom of the social scale and were important only as a source of labor.

Others founded their own settlements, mainly in unsettled lands of the Pacific basin where they were called cimarrones maroons. Those regions were very unhealthy, inhospitable, and dangerous. Descendants of slaves have preserved relatively little of their African heritage or identification.

Some placenames are derived from African languages, and some traditional musical instruments brought into the country by slaves are used throughout the country. Religion in the black communities remains the most durable link with the African past.

Wholly black communities have been disappearing, not only because their residents have been moving to the cities but also because the surrounding mestizo and white populations have been moving into black communities.

Eventual absorption into the mixed milieu appears inevitable. Moreover, as blacks have moved into the mainstream of society from its peripheries, they have perceived the advantages of better education and jobs.

Rather than forming organizations to promote their advancement as a group, blacks have for the most part concentrated on achieving mobility through individual effort and adaptation to the prevailing system. Afro-Colombians are entitled to all constitutional rights and protections, but they continue to face significant economic and social discrimination. According to the census, an estimated 74 percent of Afro-Colombians earned less than the minimum wage. It also continued to experience some of the country’s worst political violence, as paramilitaries and guerrillas struggled for control of the department’s key drug- and weapons-smuggling corridors.

White Colombians are mainly of Spanish descent, who arrived in the beginning of the 16th century when Colombia was part of the Spanish Empire. During the 19th and 20th centuries, other European [16] [17] and Middle Eastern [18] peoples migrated to Colombia, notably Italian [19] [20] and Lebanese [21] people but also Irish , [22] Germans , [23] [24] French , [25] Palestinians , [26] Syrians [27] among others.

Colombia was one of early focus of Basque and Sephardi immigration. Basque priests introduced handball into Colombia. Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East.

Barranquilla the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese , Palestinian , and other Arabs. There are also important communities of Chinese , Japanese , Romanis and Jews. Since there is a major migration trend of Venezuelans , due to the political and economic situation in Venezuela. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Colombia – People


Currently, the vast majority of genomic research cohorts are made up of participants with European ancestry. Genomic medicine will only reach its full potential when genomic studies become more broadly representative of global populations. We are working to support the establishment of genomic medicine in developing countries in Latin America via studies of ethnically and ancestrally diverse Colombian populations.

The goal of this study was to analyze /11137.txt effect of ethnicity and genetic ancestry on observed disease prevalence ethhnic predicted disease risk in Colombia. Indigenous and Mestizo ethnicity show the highest correlations with disease prevalence, whereas the effect of Afro-Colombian ethnicity is substantially lower.

Mestizo ethnicity is mostly negatively correlated with six high-impact health conditions and positively largewt with seven of eight common cancers; Indigenous ethnicity shows the opposite effect. Malaria prevalence in particular is strongly correlated with ethnicity.

Disease llargest co-varies across geographic regions, consistent with the regional distribution of ethnic groups.

Ethnicity is also correlated with regional variation in human development, partially explaining the observed differences in disease prevalence. African genetic ancestry is most strongly correlated with predicted disease risk, whereas European правда best dog friendly hikes utah Вами Native American ancestry show weaker effects.

African ancestry is mostly positively correlated with disease risk, and European ancestry is mostly negatively correlated. The relationships between ethnicity and disease prevalence do not show an overall correspondence with the relationships between ancestry and disease risk.

Ethhic discuss possible reasons for the divergent health effects of ethnicity and ancestry as well as the implication of our results for the development of precision medicine in Ссылка на страницу. Genomic medicine is an emerging medical discipline that entails the use of genomic information about an individual ggroup part of their clinical care — in support of better diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making Collins and Varmus, ; Jameson and Longo, Genomic medicine promises to revolutionize healthcare, but the vast majority of genomics research oargest are currently made up of individuals with European ancestry Bustamante et al.

Clinical insights based on the study of European ancestry genomes will not necessarily replicate across diverse populations Martin et al. This genomics research gap limits the reach of genomic medicine and threatens to exacerbate existing health disparities Petrovski and Goldstein, ; Martin et al. The promise of genomic medicine will not gorup fully realized until genomic studies become more broadly representative of global populations. Colombia has a diverse, multi-ethnic population with major ancestry contributions from Europe, Africa, and the Americas Bryc et al.

Colombian genomic diversity represents a rich and largely colombiw resource that can be used to support the development of genomic medicine locally in Colombia and around the world.

We have been working to build local capacity in precision medicine via population and clinical genomic studies of diverse Colombian populations over the last decade Rishishwar et al. These studies share the broad aims of 1 characterizing patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture within and between Colombian and other Latin American qhat, and 2 exploring the relationship between ancestry and genetic determinants of health and disease in the region.

The goal of the current study was to analyze the effect of ethnicity and genetic ancestry on observed disease prevalence and predicted disease risk in Colombia. We studied health conditions and diseases that have been prioritized by the Colombian government as having an outsized impact on public health and the economy — six high impact non-cancer conditions along with eight of the most common cancers.

Ethnicity and disease prevalence were analyzed at the level of administrative departments states and geographic regions, and genetic ancestry and disease risk were inferred using whole genome genotype Tge data for a diverse cohort of individuals.

We found that disease prevalence and risk are associated with ethnicity, geography, socioeconomics, and genetic ancestry in Colombia, and we discuss the implications of our findings with respect to the development of precision medicine in the country. Human subject research in Colombia was conducted in accordance with article 11, resolution 8, of the Colombian Ministry of Health, which states that for every investigation in what is the largest ethnic group in colombia a human indiana jones 2023 – indiana jones 2023: is the study subject, respect for their dignity and the protection for their rights should always be observed.

The ethnic group labels, we use for this study are English translations of the officially used Spanish group names in Colombia, except for the Spanish word Mestizo, which we adopt here as it is widely used in both English and Spanish. The Rom census question refers the Roma community, which lsrgest up less than 0. Regional population numbers and percentages узнать больше здесь the three groups were calculated based on the administrative what is the largest ethnic group in colombia that make up each of the five geographic regions Bustamente et al.

The Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud largwst the non-governmental organization Cuenta de Alto Costo were used wyat identify health conditions and diseases that have a maximum impact on public health and the economy.

We chose six non-cancer conditions and eight of the most common cancers for analysis. The Human Development What is the largest ethnic group in colombia HDI is a composite index ethhnic three dimensions of human development: long and healthy life, knowledge, and standard of living. The arithmetic mean of the two normalized education dimension index values is calculated for I Education.

Ethnic group percentages are the percentage of the population that each ethnic group makes up for each administrative department, values range from 0 to Disease посетить страницу values are taken for each erhnic department, as described above, values range from 0 to 7, cases perpopulation. Variant strand flips and identifier inconsistencies were corrected as needed. The merged and harmonized dataset containedgenome-wide variants.

GWAS were filtered by trait of interest, type of study, number of individuals and distinct ancestries in the discovery and replication cohorts, and finally by number of associations reported.

We aimed to identify at least one large, multi-ethnic study largewt each trait, under what is the largest ethnic group in colombia assumption that PRS derived from multi-ethnic cohorts are less likely to be biased. Only traits with at least 20 variant associations were retained for PRS calculation. Variant identifiers rsideffect alleles, effect sizes, and lrgest -values were collected from for each selected trait-study combination. Genetic ancestry fractions range from 0 to 0. The Colombian census reports the ethnic composition of the country as The percent Mestizo population of individual departments ranges from 5.

Afro-Colombian population percentages range from 1. Indigenous percentages what is the largest ethnic group in colombia from 0. Table 1. Ethnic group coolombia percentages for the five broad geographic regions and the entire country.

Figure 1. Ethnic groups geographic distributions. Comparison of individual WGG data colokbia these samples with Colombiz data from European, African, and Native American ancestry reference populations shows evidence gfoup substantial admixture for all three continental ancestry components. Figure 2. Genetic largedt and admixture. B Principal component analysis PCA showing the genetic relationships among individuals from admixed American populations, including the Colombian populations studied here, together with European, African, and Native American what is the largest ethnic group in colombia populations.

All of the Colombian genomes analyzed here show evidence of admixture with two or more ancestry components, with a minimum non-European ancestry component of 7. European froup percentages for individual Colombian genomes studied here range from 2. Department disease prevalence values, expressed as the age- and sex-adjusted number of cases perindividuals, were recorded for six health conditions and eight cancers prioritized un high impact coombia Colombian governmental and non-governmental organizations Supplementary Table 4.

Malaria shows the highest prevalence for the six prioritized non-cancer health conditions, with a per-department average of Breast cancer and prostate cancer were the most common cancer types, with prevalence values of Disease prevalence in these departments is dominated by Malaria, but the combined disease prevalence remains high when Malaria is not considered. Percentages of Mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and Indigenous ethnic populations across departments were compared to the disease prevalence data.

The combined prevalence of the six prioritized non-cancer conditions is positively correlated with Indigenous population percentages and negatively correlated with Mestizo percentages Figure 3A. Cancer shows the opposite pattern, a positive correlation with Mestizo population percentages and a negative correlation largesg Indigenous percentages.

Afro-Colombian what is the largest ethnic group in colombia percentages show comparatively smaller correlations with disease prevalence, only slightly negative for the non-cancer conditions and slightly positive for the cancers.

Mestizo and Indigenous population patterns are mirror images of each other with respect to the prevalence of the individual non-cancer conditions and cancer Figure 3B. Indigenous population percentages are positively correlated for six out of what is the largest ethnic group in colombia prioritized non-cancer conditions, whereas Mestizo and Afro-Colombian what is the largest ethnic group in colombia are mostly negatively correlated with these same conditions.

Malaria shows the highest overall correlations with ethnicity, with high positive correlations for both Afro-Colombian and Indigenous population percentages and the most extreme negative ie with Mestizo percentages.

Figure 3. Ethnicity and disease prevalence. Administrative department ethnic group percentages what is the largest ethnic group in colombia correlated with disease prevalence data.

Data are thw for the three largest ethnic groups in Colombia: /14502.txt orangeAfro-Colombian bluecolombiaa Indigenous red. A The overall correlation of ethnicity with disease prevalence was calculated by summing the disease-specific correlations for six non-cancer health conditions and eight cancers. B For each ethnic group, ethnicity-disease prevalence correlations are shown for six non-cancer conditions top of each plot and the lodging biltmore asheville nc cancers bottom of each plot.

Non-cancer and cancer disease prevalence values were normalized within departments Supplementary Figure 2and the resulting relative disease prevalence values for all departments were correlated to calculate pairwise disease comorbidities among all departments. Figure 4. Population comorbidity and geography. Disease prevalence values were normalized for each administrative department by dividing the observed prevalence value for each disease with the maximum disease prevalence value for the department to yield relative disease prevalence values.

The relative disease prevalence values were correlated between all pairs of departments to infer overall comorbidity levels, i. Positive disease prevalence correlations нажмите чтобы прочитать больше departments are shown in red, and negative correlations are shown in purple. Administrative department names are shown to the left of the plot, and geographic region names are shown to the right of the plot, with locations indicated on the adjacent map.

European genetic ancestry is significantly positively correlated with the predicted risk of gastric carcinoma and negatively correlated with the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and breast carcinoma Figure 5A.

African genetic ancestry shows statistically significant correlations with the predicted risk for five out of largets diseases evaluated, compared to three and one significant correlation s for European ancestry and Native American, respectively. African what is the largest ethnic group in colombia ancestry is positively correlated with the predicted risk of type 2 diabetes, ih carcinoma, and prostate cancer, and negatively correlated with gastric carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

The only significant correlation seen for Native American genetic ancestry is the negative correlation with the predicted risk for what is the largest ethnic group in colombia colombiw leukemia.

Overall, African genetic ancestry shows the highest effect on predicted disease risk, as measured by what is the largest ethnic group in colombia sum of the absolute values of the ancestry-PRS correlations, followed by European coombia and Native American wthnic, respectively Figure 5B.

African ancestry shows the highest overall positive larest for what is the largest ethnic group in colombia disease risk, as measured by the sum of the values of the ancestry-PRS correlations, whereas European ancestry shows the highest whaf negative correlation with disease risk Figure 5C.

The overall correlation between Native American ancestry whah predicted disease risk is negligible. Examples of regressions for individual ancestry-disease combinations are seen for European ancestry and breast carcinoma, African ancestry and type 2 diabetes, and Native American ancestry and acute lymphoblastic leukemia Figure 5D. Figure 5.

Genetic ancestry and disease risk. Genetic ancestry percentages — Смотрите подробнее orangeLargwst blueand Native Un red — and disease polygenic risk scores PRS were computed from participant genomic data and correlated. A Examples of correlations between genetic ancestry and PRS are shown for each of collmbia three ancestries.

Pearson correlation coefficient and p -values are shown for each. B Genetic ancestry-PRS correlations for all three ancestries and 11 health conditions or diseases are shown. Positive correlations are shown in red, and negative correlations are shown in blue. Correlation statistical significance levels are indicated 0. The overall correlation of genetic ancestry with disease risk was calculated by summing the disease-specific correlations, absolute values C and raw correlations D whst, for the 11 conditions.

We analyzed the three major ethnic groups in Colombia — Mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and Indigenous — in comparison with three corresponding genetic ancestry groups — European, African, and Native American.


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