Pennsylvania short name
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Pennsylvania is the fifth-most populous state in the nation with over 13 million residents as of Nearly half the population, over 6. Pennsylvania short name third of the state’s residents live in Greater Pittsburgh 2. The state capital is Harrisburg. While it has only miles km of waterfront along Lake Erie and the Delaware Rivershogt Pennsylvania short name has more navigable rivers than any other state, including the DelawareOhioand Pine Creek.
Pennsylvania was founded in through royal land grant to William Pennson of the state’s namesake; the southeast portion was once part of the colony of New Sweden. Established as a haven for religious and political tolerance, the Province of Pennsylvania was noteworthy for pennsylvaniia relatively pennsylvania short name relations with native tribes, innovative government systemand religious pluralism.
Pennsylvania was one of the thirteen British colonies from which the nation ultimately was formed. Pennsylvania played a vital and historic role in the quest for independence. Its largest city, Philadelphia, was the gathering place of pennsylvania short name nation’s founding fathers and home to much of the thinking, activism, and writing that inspired the American Revolution.
Philadelphia hosted the First Continental Congress in Carpenters’ Hall inand, beginning the following year, the Second Continental Congress in Independence Hallwhich unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independencea document that historian Joseph Ellis has described as “the most potent and consequential words in American history” and which formally launched the American Revolutionary War.
In Pennsjlvania, the Second Continental Congress, on June 21,ratified the Articles of Confederationwhich served as the foundation for the ultimate development and ratification epnnsylvania the U. Constitution ; Pennsylvania became the second state after Delaware, which had previously been part of Pennsylvania north carolina zoo animals the three lower counties to ratify the Constitution on December 12, During the American Civil WarPennsylvania’sUnion Army volunteers proved influential in strengthening the Unionsuccessfully guarding the national capital of Washington, D.
The bloodiest battle of the Civil War with over 50, casualties, and one of the Union Army’s most important victories, was fought on Pennsylvania soil at Gettysburg over three days in July Lincoln ‘s word address dedicating Gettysburg National Cemetery on November 19, remains one of the best known speeches in American history  . In the pennsylvania short name 19th and 20th centuries, Pittsburgh-based U.
SteelBethlehem-based Bethlehem Steeland other Pennsylvania manufacturing companies inspired the Industrial Revolution and contributed to the development of much of the nation’s early infrastructure, including key bridges, skyscrapersand warships, tanks, and other military hardware that proved vital to U.
Since Pennsylvania’s founding, a number of influential Pennsylvanians have contributed significantly to the nation in many fields, including the military, pennsylvania short name, business, scientific innovationthought leadership, philanthropy, music, art, and sports. Pennsylvania’s history namd human habitation extends pennsylvania short name thousands of years before the foundation of the colonial Province of Pennsylvania in Pennsylvania short name generally believe that the first settlement of the Americas occurred at least 15, years ago during the last glacial periodthough it is unclear when humans first entered the area now known as Pennsylvania.
There also is open debate in the archaeological community regarding when ancestors of Native Americans expanded across the two continents down to the tip of South America ; possibilities range between 30, and 10, years ago. By the time that European colonization of the Americas began, at least two major Native American tribes inhabited Pennsylvania. It included most of the state of New Jersey and most of the Lehigh Valley and Delaware Valley regions of eastern and southeastern Pennsylvania.
The Lenape’s territory ended somewhere between the Delaware River in the east and Susquehanna river in central Pennsylvania. The Susquehannockwho spoke an Iroquoian languagewere based in more western regions of the state from New York in the north to West Virginia in the southwest that included the Susquehanna River all the way to the Allegheny and Pennsylvania short name rivers near present day Pittsburgh.
As they lost pennsylvania short name and land, they abandoned much of their western territory and moved closer to the Susquehanna River and the Iroquois bame Mohawk tribes located more to the north. Northwest of the Allegheny River was the Iroquoian Petun known mostly for their vast tobacco plantations, although this взято отсюда believed to be complete fabrication.
South of the Allegheny River reportedly was a nation known as Calicua. Archaeological sites from this time in this region are scarce and the naje few historical sources even mention them—most of these sources only coming from those who met Caligula traders further east on the Allegheny River. The Dutch and the English each claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America.
New Sweden claimed and, pensylvania the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania but settled few colonists there. This grant was in conflict with the Dutch claim for New Netherlandwhich included parts of today’s Pennsyllvania.
On June 24,pennsylvania short name Duke of York sold the portion of his large grant that included present-day New Jersey to John Berkeley and What is the unemployment rate in north carolina right now Carteret for a proprietary colony. The land was not yet in British possession, but the sale pennsylvania short name in the portion of New Netherland on the West side of the Delaware River.
The Peace of Breda between England, France pennsylvania short name the Netherlands confirmed the English conquest on July 21,  although there were temporary reversions.
The one that later transferred to Pennsylvania was Upland. The British retained the Dutch Counties with their Dutch names.
This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history. The younger Penn was embarrassed at this name, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant. What had been Upland on what became the Pennsylvania side of the Pennsylvania- Delaware Border was pennsylvaniz as Chester County when Pennsylvania instituted their colonial governments on March 4, The treaty of William Penn was never violated.
Between and pennsylvania short name it was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act ofthe Pennsylvania Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. The paper money was called Colonial Scrip. The Colony issued “bills of credit”, which were as good as pennsylvania short name or silver coins because of their legal tender status.
Pennsylvania short name they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an pennsylvania short name proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore pennsylvania short name of the people. It also promoted pennsylvania short name employment and prosperity, since the Government used discretion and pennsylvania short name not issue too much to inflate the currency. Benjamin Franklin had a hand in creating this currency, whose utility, he said, was never to be disputed.
The currency also met with the “cautious approval” of Adam Smith. The University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia was founded by Benjamin Franklin inbecoming one of the nine colonial shoort and the first college established in the state and one of the first in the nation; today, it is an Ivy League university ranked among the best universities in the world. James Smith wrote that in”the Indians again commenced hostilities, and were pennsylvania short name engaged in killing and scalping the frontier inhabitants in various parts of Pennsylvania.
The Congress was /2465.txt first meeting of the Shirt Coloniescalled at the request of the Massachusetts Assembly, but only nine colonies sent delegates. When the Founding Fathers convened in Philadelphia in12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress. There they and pennsylvania short name primary author, John Dickinson, drew up the Articles of Confederation that pennsylvania short name 13 independent States  into a new union.
Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Union. Pennsylvania short name became the second state to ratify the U. Constitution on December 12, five days after Pennsylvanja became the first.
Pennsylvania short name the time, Pennsylvania was the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the thirteen colonies. Because one third of Pennsylvania’s population spoke Germanthe Constitution was presented in Pennsylvania short name so those citizens could participate in the discussion about it. Reverend Frederick Muhlenberg acted as the chairman of the state’s ratifying convention. For half a century, the Pennsylvania General Assembly met at various places in the general Philadelphia area before it began meeting regularly in Independence Hall in Philadelphia for 63 years.
In the General Assembly moved to the Lancaster Courthouse. The General Pennsypvania met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December  when the Federal-style “Hills Capitol”, named for Pennsylvania short name architect Stephen Hillswas constructed on a hilltop land grant of four acres set aside for a seat of state government in Harrisburg pennsylvania short name the son and namesake of John Harris, Sr.
The General Assembly met at a nearby Pennsylvahia Church until a new capitol could be built. Following an architectural selection contest that some alleged had been “rigged”, Chicago pennsylvania short name Henry Ives Cobb was charged with designing and building a replacement building; however, the legislature had little money to allocate to the project, and they dubbed the roughly finished, somewhat industrial Cobb Capitol building complete. The General Assembly refused to occupy the building.
Political naame popular indignation in prompted a second contest sjort was restricted to Pennsylvania architects; Joseph Miller Huston of Philadelphia was chosen to design the present Pennsylvania State Capitol that incorporated Cobb’s building into magnificent public work, finished and dedicated in James Buchanana native of Franklin Countyserved as the 15th U.
The politics of Pennsylvania were for decades dominated by the financially conservative, Republican shprt Cameron machineestablished by U. Control of the machine was subsequently passed on to Cameron’s son J. Donald Cameronwhose ineffectiveness namf in a transfer of power to the more shrewd Matthew Quayand finally to Boies Penrose. Pennsylvania was home to pennsylvania short name of the largest steel companies in the world. Schwab founded Bethlehem Steel in Bethlehem. Other titans of industry, such as John D.
Rockefeller pennsylvania short name Jay Gouldalso operated in the state. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U. As the Pennsylvania oil rush developed, Pennsylvania’s oil boom towns, such as Titusvillerose and fell.
Coal mining, primarily in Northeastern Pennsylvania and the Coal Regionalso was a major industry in the state. InMilton S. Hershey began construction on a chocolate factory in Hershey, Pennsylvania ; The Hershey Company grew to become the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America.
Heinz Company was also founded during this period. These huge companies exercised a large influence on the politics of Pennsylvania; as Henry Demarest Lloyd put it, oil baron John D. Rockefeller “had done everything with the Вот ссылка legislature except refine it”.
The growth of industry eventually nake middle class incomes to working-class households after the development of labor unions helped them gain living wages. However, the rise of unions also led to a pennsylvania short name of union busting with several private police forces springing up.
The eight-hour day was eventually adopted, and the pennsylvania short name and iron police” were banned. At the beginning of the 20th century, Pennsylvania’s economy centered on steel production, logging, coal mining, textile production, and other forms of pennsylvania short name manufacturing. A surge in immigration to the U.
Pennsylvania was an important industrial center in World Pennsylvania short name Iand the state provided oversoldiers for the military. The Allegheny is the state’s only national forest. During the war, over one million Pennsylvanians served in the armed forces, and more Medals of Honor were awarded to Pennsylvanians than to individuals from any other state.
The Three Mile Island accident was the most significant nuclear accident in U. With job losses came heavy population losses, especially in the state’s largest cities.
Pittsburgh lost its place among the top ten most populous cities in the United States bywhile Philadelphia pennsylvania short name pemnsylvania being the fifth and later sixth largest city after decades pennsylvaia being within the top three. Afteras information-based industries became more important in the economy, state and local governments put more resources into the old, well-established public library system.
Some localities, however, used new state funding to cut local taxes. For example, in Chester CountyMexican immigrants brought the Spanish languageincreased Catholicismhigh birth rates ссылкой what is the average salary in charlotte nc – what is the average salary in charlotte nc давай cuisine when they were hired to as agricultural laborers; in some rural localities they made up half the population.
In the 20th century, as Pennsylvania’s historical national and even global leadership in mining largely ceased and pennsylvania short name steelmaking and other heavy manufacturing pennsylvania short name slowed, the state sought to grow its service and other industries to replace the jobs and economic productivity lost from the downturn of these industries.
Pittsburgh’s concentration of universities has enabled it to be a leader in technology and healthcare.
Pennsylvania short name –
The number of women in South Carolina who died during childbirth was more than twice the rate in Pennsylvania. In Pennsylvaniaabout 19, Republicans changed their party registration since the beginning of the year. Lara Putnam, a historian at the University of Pittsburgh, said that in Pennsylvaniagerrymandering has resulted in the election of very right-wing state legislators.
In states like Pennsylvania and Ohio, some of the most conservative lawmakers have regularly flouted mask rules that have been in place for months. We are not told that Cooper had pennsylvania short name able to vote without hindrance when she lived in Kentucky, Pennsylvaniaand Ohio.
No alarms were triggered as she strolled out of the Giant top 10 crime cities in nc in Limerick, Pennsylvaniaand nobody thought otherwise. Conestoga Wood Specialties Corporation A Pennsylvania -based wood cabinet and specialty products manufacturer. Pennsylvaniawhere the assault is alleged to have taken place, has a year statute of limitations on sexual assault.
William Pennsylvania short name, published in England his frame of pennsylvania short name for the colony of Pennsylvania. During the revolutionary war he was commissary-general to the Pennsylvania division, and printer to congress. He was judge of the admiralty court of Pennsylvania ; his writings abound with wit, humor and satire. In Pennsylvania a different rule was long ago pennsylvania short name, and has ever since pennsylvania short name maintained.
Richard Penn, one of the proprietors, and governor of Pennsylvania before the revolution, died in England. Its capital is Harrisburg, and its largest city is Philadelphia. New Pennsylvania short name List Word List. Save This Word! Capital : Harrisburg. Abbreviations : PA for use with pennsylvania short name codePa. It should prove to be a quick challenge! Words nearby Pennsylvania penning gatepenninitepennonpennoncelPennsaukenPennsylvaniaPennsylvania DutchPennsylvanianPenn, Williampennypenny-a-liner.
How to use Pennsylvania in a sentence The number of women in South Carolina who died during childbirth was more than twice the rate in Pennsylvania.
Overlapping crises expose the erosion of our national unity Philip Bump February 18, Washington Post. Perry Bacon Jr. Capital: Harrisburg. Pop: 12 est. All rights reserved.
Pennsylvania short name.35 Catchy Pennsylvania Slogans, State Motto, Nicknames and Sayings
Other titans of industry, such as John D. Rockefeller and Jay Gould , also operated in the state. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.
As the Pennsylvania oil rush developed, Pennsylvania’s oil boom towns, such as Titusville , rose and fell. Coal mining, primarily in Northeastern Pennsylvania and the Coal Region , also was a major industry in the state.
In , Milton S. Hershey began construction on a chocolate factory in Hershey, Pennsylvania ; The Hershey Company grew to become the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America. Heinz Company was also founded during this period. These huge companies exercised a large influence on the politics of Pennsylvania; as Henry Demarest Lloyd put it, oil baron John D. Rockefeller “had done everything with the Pennsylvania legislature except refine it”. The growth of industry eventually provided middle class incomes to working-class households after the development of labor unions helped them gain living wages.
However, the rise of unions also led to a rise of union busting with several private police forces springing up. The eight-hour day was eventually adopted, and the “coal and iron police” were banned. At the beginning of the 20th century, Pennsylvania’s economy centered on steel production, logging, coal mining, textile production, and other forms of industrial manufacturing.
A surge in immigration to the U. Pennsylvania was an important industrial center in World War I , and the state provided over , soldiers for the military. The Allegheny is the state’s only national forest. During the war, over one million Pennsylvanians served in the armed forces, and more Medals of Honor were awarded to Pennsylvanians than to individuals from any other state. The Three Mile Island accident was the most significant nuclear accident in U. With job losses came heavy population losses, especially in the state’s largest cities.
Pittsburgh lost its place among the top ten most populous cities in the United States by , while Philadelphia dropped to being the fifth and later sixth largest city after decades of being within the top three. After , as information-based industries became more important in the economy, state and local governments put more resources into the old, well-established public library system.
Some localities, however, used new state funding to cut local taxes. For example, in Chester County , Mexican immigrants brought the Spanish language , increased Catholicism , high birth rates and cuisine when they were hired to as agricultural laborers; in some rural localities they made up half the population. In the 20th century, as Pennsylvania’s historical national and even global leadership in mining largely ceased and its steelmaking and other heavy manufacturing sectors slowed, the state sought to grow its service and other industries to replace the jobs and economic productivity lost from the downturn of these industries.
Pittsburgh’s concentration of universities has enabled it to be a leader in technology and healthcare. Similarly, Philadelphia has a concentration of university expertise. Healthcare, retail, transportation, and tourism are some of the state’s growing industries of the postindustrial era.
As in the rest of the nation, most residential population growth has occurred in suburban rather than central city areas, although both major cities have had significant revitalization in their downtown areas. The growth of the Lehigh Valley has made it one of the seventy most populous metro areas in the country,  while Pennsylvania also has six other metro areas among the top most populous American metro areas.
Philadelphia forms part of the Northeast megalopolis and is associated with the Northeastern United States , while Pittsburgh is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis and is often associated with the Midwestern United States and the Rust Belt. On September 11, , during the terrorist attacks on the United States , the small town of Shanksville, Pennsylvania received worldwide attention after United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township , 1.
It was the only one of the four aircraft hijacked that day that never reached its intended target and the heroism of the passengers has been commemorated. Beginning in , the Tekko anime convention is held annually in Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania is miles km north to south and miles km east to west.
Of the original Thirteen Colonies , Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean. Pennsylvania’s diverse topography also produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. Summers are generally hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and snowfall amounts are greater.
Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie , can receive over inches cm of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into autumn. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in ; generally speaking, these tornadoes do not cause significant damage. Cities include Philadelphia , Reading , Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, and the tri-cities of Allentown , Bethlehem , and Easton in the central east known as the Lehigh Valley.
The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton , Wilkes-Barre , Pittston , Nanticoke , and Hazleton.
Erie is located in the northwest. State College is located in the central region, Williamsport is in the north-central region with York , Carlisle , and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region.
The state’s three most populated cities, in order of size, are Philadelphia , Pittsburgh , and Allentown. As of the U. In , net migration to other states resulted in a decrease of 27,, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of , Net migration to the Commonwealth was 98, Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of , people.
From to , 5. Among Pennsylvania residents, as of , Island areas, or born abroad to American parent s , and 5. The largest ancestry groups are listed below, expressed as a percentage of total people who responded with a particular ancestry for the census:  .
Pennsylvania’s Hispanic or Latino American population grew by The significant growth of the Hispanic or Latino population is due to migration to the state mainly from Puerto Rico , which is a U. The rapid growth of this community has given Pennsylvania one of the largest Asian populations in the nation by numerical values. Twelve other states saw decreases in their non-Hispanic white populations.
The majority of Hispanic or Latino Americans in Pennsylvania are of Puerto Rican descent, having one of the largest and fastest-growing Puerto Rican populations in the country. Pennsylvania’s reported population of Hispanics or Latino Americans, especially among the black race, has markedly increased in recent years.
It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status. Of the black population, the vast majority in the state are African American, being descendants of African slaves brought to the U. There are also a growing number of blacks of West Indian , recent African , and Hispanic or Latino origins.
Non-Hispanic whites make up the majority of Pennsylvania; they are mostly descended from German, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Italian, and English immigrants. Rural portions of South Central Pennsylvania are famous nationwide for their notable Amish communities. The Wyoming Valley , consisting of Scranton and Wilkes-Barre , has the highest percentage of white residents of any metropolitan area with a population of , or above in the U.
The center of population of Pennsylvania is located in Perry County , in the borough of Duncannon. Census Bureau estimates, the state’s poverty rate was Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. As of , In total, 9. Pennsylvania German, spoken by nearly one percent of Pennsylvania’s population as of , is often misleadingly called “Pennsylvania Dutch”. The term “Dutch” was used to mean “German”  including the Netherlands before the Latin name for them replaced it but stuck with the Netherlands.
When referring to the language spoken by the Pennsylvania Dutch people Pennsylvania German , it means German “. Pennsylvania German is still very vigorous as a first language among Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites , principally in the Lancaster County area whereas it is almost extinct as an everyday language outside the plain communities , though a few words have passed into English usage.
Of all the colonies, only Pennsylvania and Rhode Island had the most religious freedom of the original Thirteen Colonies. The chief is, to ill-treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God.
Pennsylvania’s population in was 12,,; of these, 6,, Pennsylvania, especially in the Pittsburgh area and Western Pennsylvania , has one of the largest communities of Presbyterians in the nation, being the third highest by percentage of population and the largest outright in membership as Protestant Christians.
The fourth-largest Protestant denomination, the United Church of Christ , has , members and congregations in the state. Pennsylvania was the center state of the German Reformed denomination from the s. Pennsylvania also has a very large Amish population, second only to Ohio among U. The total Anabapist population including Bruderhof  was ,, about two percent of the population.
As of May , the state’s unemployment rate is Philadelphia in the southeast corner, Pittsburgh in the southwest corner, Erie in the northwest corner, Scranton-Wilkes-Barre in the northeast corner, and Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton in the east central region are urban manufacturing centers. Much of the Commonwealth is rural; this dichotomy affects state politics as well as the state economy.
Pittsburgh is home to eight Fortune companies, including U. Erie is also home to GE Transportation , which is the largest producer of train locomotives in the United States.
As in the U. The first nationally chartered bank in the United States, the Bank of North America , was founded in in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania is also home to the first nationally-chartered bank under the National Banking Act. That bank is still in existence today as PNC and remains based in Pittsburgh. PNC is currently the state’s largest bank and the sixth largest bank in the nation.
Pennsylvania ranks 19th overall in agricultural production. Pennsylvania ranks 8th in the nation in winemaking. The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture worked with private companies to establish “PA Preferred” as a way to brand agricultural products grown or made in the state to support and promote Pennsylvania products and locally-grown food.
Casino gambling was legalized in Pennsylvania in As of , there are 16 casinos across the state. The Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit began in and stimulated the development of a film industry in the state. Pennsylvania has had five constitutions during its statehood:  , , , , and Before that the province of Pennsylvania was governed for a century by a Frame of Government , of which there were four versions: , , , and The legislature meets there in the State Capitol.
In a study, Pennsylvania was ranked as the 19th hardest state for citizens to vote in. The current Governor is Tom Wolf. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor run as a ticket in the general election and are up for re-election every four years during the midterm elections. The elections for Attorney General, Auditor General, and Treasurer are held every four years coinciding with a Presidential election.
Pennsylvania has a bicameral legislature set up by Commonwealth’s constitution in The original Frame of Government of William Penn had a unicameral legislature. Pennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts,  most of which except Philadelphia have magisterial district judges formerly called district justices and justices of the peace , who preside mainly over preliminary hearings in felony and misdemeanor offenses, all minor summary criminal offenses, and small civil claims.
It also has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance. All judges in Pennsylvania are elected; the chief justice is determined by seniority. Pennsylvania is divided into 67 counties.
The most populous county in Pennsylvania is Philadelphia, while the least populous is Cameron 4, There are a total of 56 cities in Pennsylvania, which are classified, by population, as either first-, second-, or third-class cities. Boroughs are generally smaller than cities, with most Pennsylvania cities having been incorporated as a borough before being incorporated as a city. Townships are the third type of municipality in Pennsylvania and are classified as either first-class or second-class townships.
There are 1, second-class townships and 93 first-class townships. There is one exception to the types of municipalities in Pennsylvania: Bloomsburg was incorporated as a town in and is, officially, the only town in the state.
Pennsylvania had the 15th-highest state and local tax burden in the nation as of , according to the Tax Foundation.
Many state politicians have tried to increase the share of taxes paid by out-of-state sources. Suggested revenue sources include taxing natural gas drilling as Pennsylvania is the only state without such a tax on gas drilling. An individual’s taxable income is based on the following eight types of income: compensation salary ; interest; dividends; net profits from the operation of a business, profession or farm; net gains or income from the dispositions of property; net gains or income from rents, royalties, patents and copyrights; income derived through estates or trusts; and gambling and lottery winnings other than Pennsylvania Lottery winnings.
Counties, municipalities, and school districts levy taxes on real estate. In addition, some local bodies assess a wage tax on personal income.
Thirty-two of the Commonwealth’s sixty-seven counties levy a personal property tax on stocks, bonds, and similar holdings. With the exception of the city of Philadelphia , Pennsylvania, municipalities and school districts are allowed to enact a local earned income tax within the purview of Act Residents of these municipalities and school districts are required to file a local income tax return in addition to federal and state returns.
This local return is filed with the local income tax collector, a private collection agency appointed by a particular county to collect the local earned income and local services tax the latter a flat fee deducted from salaried employees working within a particular municipality or school district. The City of Philadelphia has its own local income taxation system. Philadelphia-based employers are required to withhold the Philadelphia wage tax from the salaries of their employees.
Residents of Philadelphia working for an employer are not required to file a local return as long as their Philadelphia wage tax is fully withheld by their employer. If their employer does not withhold the Philadelphia wage tax, residents are required to register with the Revenue Department and file an Earnings Tax return.
Residents with unearned income except for interest from checking and savings accounts are required to file and pay the School Income-tax SIT. The complexity of Pennsylvania’s local tax filing system has been criticized by experts, who note that the outsourcing of collections to private entities is akin to tax farming and that many new residents are caught off guard and end up facing “failure to file” penalties even if they did not owe any tax.
Attempts to transfer local income tax collections to the state level i. The Pennsylvania State Police is the chief law enforcement agency in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Since the latter half of the 20th century, Pennsylvania has been perceived as a powerful swing state , and winning Pennsylvania has since been deemed as essential to U.
Only twice between to and with Herbert Hoover and Hubert Humphrey , respectively has a winning presidential candidate failed to carry Pennsylvania. Between and , Pennsylvania trended Democratic in presidential elections; Bill Clinton won the state twice by large margins and Al Gore won it by a slightly closer margin in In the presidential election, John F. Kerry beat President George W. The state holds 20 electoral votes. In recent national elections since , Pennsylvania had leaned Democrat. The state voted for the Democratic ticket for president in every election between and During the election campaign, a recruitment drive saw registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by 1.
However, Pennsylvania has a history of electing Republican U. From to , the state was represented by two Democratic senators for the first time since after Republican Senator Arlen Specter switched party affiliation. In , Republicans recaptured a U. Senate seat and a majority of the state’s congressional seats, control of both chambers of the state legislature, and the governorship. Democrats won back the governorship, however, four years later in the election.
It was the first time since a governor became eligible for reelection that an incumbent governor had been defeated in a reelection bid. Republican strength was concentrated in the Philadelphia suburbs and the more rural areas in the state’s central, northeastern, and western portions, some of which have long been considered among the nation’s most conservative areas.
Since , however, the Philadelphia suburbs have swung Democratic; the brand of Republicanism there was traditionally a moderate one. In the 21st century, however, Pittsburgh suburbs, which historically had been Democrat strongholds, have swung more Republican. Democratic political consultant James Carville once pejoratively described Pennsylvania as “Philadelphia in the east, Pittsburgh in the west, and Alabama in the middle”, suggesting that political power in the state was based in its two largest cities, which have been reliably Democrat, offset by the state’s large rural power base, which has proven equally reliably Republican.
Political analysts and editorials refer to central Pennsylvania as the “T” in statewide elections. The state’s three valleys Delaware , Lehigh , and Wyoming Valleys and Greater Pittsburgh generally vote Democrat, while the majority of the counties in the central part of the state vote Republican.
As a result, maps showing the results of statewide elections invariably form a shape that resembles a “T”. Pennsylvania’s two U. Senators are Democrat Bob Casey Jr. Casey would seek reelection in should he seek another term. Toomey, meanwhile, chose not to run for reelection in , and Republican Mehmet Oz and Democrat John Fetterman are seeking to replace Toomey in the general election for the seat.
Pennsylvania has 18 seats in the U. House of Representatives as of Pennsylvania has public school districts, thousands of private schools, publicly funded colleges and universities, and over private institutions of higher education. Under state law, school attendance in Pennsylvania is mandatory for a child from the age of 8 until the age of 17, or until graduation from an accredited high school whichever is earlier unless students are homeschooled.
The following are the four-year graduation rates for students completing high school in . Additionally, In , Pennsylvania ranked 14th in mathematics, 12th in reading, and 10th in writing for 8th grade students.
This law specifies the requirements and responsibilities of the parents and the school district where the family lives. West Chester University has by far the largest student body of the 14 universities.
The Commonwealth System of Higher Education is an organizing body of the four state-related schools in Pennsylvania; these schools Pennsylvania State University , Lincoln University , the University of Pittsburgh , and Temple University are independent institutions that receive some state funding.
There are also 15 publicly funded two-year community colleges and technical schools that are separate from the PASSHE system. Additionally, there are many private two- and four-year technical schools , colleges, and universities. Carnegie Mellon University , The Pennsylvania State University , the University of Pennsylvania , and the University of Pittsburgh are members of the Association of American Universities , an invitation-only organization of leading research universities.
Lehigh University is a private research university located in Bethlehem. The University of Pennsylvania, located in Philadelphia, is considered the first university in the United States and established the country’s first medical school.
The University of Pennsylvania is also the Commonwealth’s only, and geographically most southern, Ivy League school. The Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine LECOM is a private graduate school of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy with a main campus in Erie, and a branch campus located in Greensburg with two other campuses outside of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania is home to the nation’s first zoo, the Philadelphia Zoo. One unique museum is the Houdini Museum in Scranton, the only building in the world devoted to the legendary magician.
All state parks in Pennsylvania feature free admission. Pennsylvania also is home to the largest indoor waterpark resort on the East Coast, Splash Lagoon in Erie. The state’s notable music festivals include Musikfest , the nation’s largest free music festival held annually each August in Bethlehem ,  the Philadelphia Folk Festival , Creation Festival , and Purple Door. The Great Allentown Fair , held annually at the Allentown Fairgrounds since the 19th century, is one of the nation’s longest-running annual fairs.
There are nearly one million licensed hunters in Pennsylvania. Whitetail deer, black bear, cottontail rabbits, squirrel, turkey, and grouse are common game species. Pennsylvania is considered one of the finest wild turkey hunting states in the Union, alongside Texas and Alabama. Sport hunting in Pennsylvania provides a massive boost for the Commonwealth’s economy. The Boone and Crockett Club reports that five of the ten largest skull size black bear entries came from the state.
PennDOT owns 39, miles 64, km of the , miles , km of roadway in the state, making it the fifth-largest state highway system in the United States. Another major east—west route is Interstate 80 , which runs primarily in the northern tier of the state from Ohio to New Jersey at the Delaware Water Gap. Interstate 90 travels the relatively short distance between Ohio and New York through Erie County , in the extreme northwestern part of the state.
Primary north—south highways are Interstate 79 from its terminus in Erie through Pittsburgh to West Virginia, Interstate 81 from New York through Scranton, Lackawanna County and Harrisburg to Maryland and Interstate , which begins 7 miles 11 km north of the Delaware border, in Chester, Delaware County and travels miles km to Clarks Summit , where it joins I The highway south of the Pennsylvania Turnpike is officially called the “Veterans Memorial Highway”, but is commonly referred to colloquially as the “Blue Route”.
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority SEPTA is the sixth-largest transit agency in the United States and operates the commuter , heavy and light rail transit, and transit bus service in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The Port Authority of Allegheny County is the 25th-largest transit agency and provides transit bus and light rail service in and around Pittsburgh.
Intercity passenger rail transit is provided by Amtrak , with the majority of traffic occurring on the Keystone Service in the high-speed Keystone Corridor between Harrisburg and Philadelphia’s 30th Street Station before heading north to New York City, as well as the Northeast Regional providing frequent high-speed service up and down the Northeast Corridor.
A total of public-use airports are located in the state. The port of Pittsburgh is the second-largest inland port in the United States and the 18th-largest port overall; the Port of Philadelphia is the 24th-largest port in the United States. Among them, these teams have accumulated seven World Series championships with the Pirates winning five and Phillies winning two , 16 National League pennants with the Pirates winning nine and Phillies winning seven , three pre- Super Bowl era NFL championships all won by the Eagles , seven Super Bowl championships with the Steelers winning six and the Eagles one , two NBA championships both won by the 76ers , and seven Stanley Cup championships with the Penguins winning five and Flyers winning two.
With five professional sports teams and some of the most passionate sports fans in the nation, Philadelphia is often described as the nation’s best sports city. Open Cup annually. Arnold Palmer , one of the 20th century’s most accomplished professional golfers, comes from Latrobe , and Jim Furyk , a current PGA member grew up near in Lancaster.
The state is also home to Maple Grove Raceway , near Reading , which hosts major National Hot Rod Association -sanctioned drag racing events each year. Over their respective college football histories, Penn State claims two national championships and and seven undefeated seasons , , , , , , and and Pitt has won nine national championships , , , , , , , , and and had eight undefeated seasons , , , , , , , and Pitt plays its home games at Acrisure Stadium , a 68,capacity stadium it shares with the Pittsburgh Steelers ; the team is coached by Pat Narduzzi.
National titles in college basketball have been won by La Salle , Temple , Penn and , Pitt and , and Villanova , , and Pennsylvania has several universities and colleges known as national leaders in college wrestling. Author Sharon Hernes Silverman calls Pennsylvania the snack food capital of the world. Two of the three companies that define the U. The U. Auntie Anne’s Pretzels began as a market-stand in Downingtown, Pennsylvania, and now has corporate headquarters in Lancaster City.
Martin’s Famous Pastry Shoppe, Inc. Among the regional foods associated with Philadelphia are cheesesteaks , hoagies , soft pretzels , Italian water ice , Irish potato candy , scrapple , Tastykake , and strombolis. In Pittsburgh, tomato ketchup was improved by Henry John Heinz from to the early 20th century. Famous to a lesser extent than Heinz ketchup is the Pittsburgh’s Primanti Brothers Restaurant sandwiches, pierogies , and city chicken.
Outside of Scranton , in Old Forge there are dozens of Italian restaurants specializing in pizza made unique by thick, light crust and American cheese. Erie also has its share of unique foods, including Greek sauce and sponge candy.
Sauerkraut along with pork and mashed potatoes is a common meal on New Year’s Day in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania has been known as the Keystone State since ,  based in part upon its central location among the original Thirteen Colonies forming the United States, and also in part because of the number of important American documents signed in the state such as the Declaration of Independence.
It was also a keystone state economically, having both the industry common to the North making such wares as Conestoga wagons and rifles   and the agriculture common to the South producing feed, fiber, food, and tobacco. Another one of Pennsylvania’s nicknames is the Quaker State ; in colonial times, it was known officially as the Quaker Province ,  in recognition of Quaker  William Penn ‘s First Frame of Government  constitution for Pennsylvania that guaranteed liberty of conscience.
He knew of the hostility  Quakers faced when they opposed religious ritual, taking oaths, violence, war and military service, and what they viewed as ostentatious frippery.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 October This article is about the U. For other uses, see Pennsylvania disambiguation. For other uses, see Penn disambiguation. State in the United States. Keystone State;  Quaker State. Mount Davis  . Delaware River at Delaware border .
Flag of Pennsylvania. Main article: History of Pennsylvania. See also: List of Pennsylvania firsts and List of people from Pennsylvania. See also: Pennsylvania in the American Revolution. See also: Pennsylvania in the American Civil War. Further information: United Airlines Flight Main article: Geography of Pennsylvania. Further information: List of counties in Pennsylvania. Main article: Climate of Pennsylvania.
See also: List of counties in Pennsylvania , List of cities in Pennsylvania , List of towns and boroughs in Pennsylvania , List of townships in Pennsylvania , List of county seats in Pennsylvania by population , List of census-designated places in Pennsylvania , and List of populated places in Pennsylvania. See also: List of municipalities in Pennsylvania. Largest municipalities in Pennsylvania Source: . Further information: List of people from Pennsylvania.
Main article: Pennsylvania Dutch language. Religion in Pennsylvania  religion percent Protestant. When writing for text or in references, traditional abbreviations are used. The names of states should be always spelled out when they are written in sentences. Below is a list of state abbreviations, both two-letter and traditional for all of the 50 US states and other territories outside the Union.
Traditional abbreviations were used before the two-letter postal codes became standard. The abbreviations are sometimes still used in note taking and text writing. States with five or fewer letters, plus Alaska and Hawaii, are never abbreviated. Know what is Pennsylvania? Got another good explanation for Pennsylvania? Don’t keep it to yourself!
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