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Influenza viruses are divided on the basis of antigenic structure into three types. Influenza A virus is principally responsible for epidemics; subtypes of influenza A virus affect birds, horses, and swine as well as human beings. Incidence of influenza B is lower and epidemics are less likely to occur with this virus, for which animal reservoirs are apparently of little importance.

Influenza C infection is typically mild or subclinical. The annual mortality of influenza in the U. Influenza deaths have increased substantially in the past 20 years, in part because of the aging of the population.

At least 30 pandemics of influenza have occurred since The influenza A pandemic of “Spanish flu” caused more than 20 million deaths worldwide, , of them in the U. Less devastating pandemics occurred in “Asian flu” and “Hong Kong flu”. Influenza is highly contagious. The virus is transmitted from person to person by direct contact and by airborne droplets of respiratory secretion expelled through coughing and sneezing. Incidence is highest in late fall, winter, and early spring.

Active immunization with noninfective vaccines containing hemagglutinin H and neuraminidase N antigens of currently prevalent strains has reduced the extent and severity of epidemics and has provided protection to vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Vaccines are especially recommended for people older than 50 and those with certain chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency, impairment of renal function, and cardiac and pulmonary disease.

Immunity arising from either natural infection or vaccination confers protection only against certain strains of virus. Antigenic drift results from the gradual accumulation of new epitopes on viral H and N molecules, whereas antigenic shifts are caused by mutations in the genes that encode these molecules.

A new strain probably emerges as a human pathogen when that strain is transmitted to human beings from animal hosts. Influenza cannot be diagnosed with certainty or differentiated from other acute febrile syndromes on clinical evidence alone. Diagnosis can only be confirmed by detection of viral antigen in nasal secretions by direct immunofluorescence or by a rising titer of antibody to influenzal hemagglutinin.

The antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine effective only against influenza A and the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir can prevent clinical illness when taken prophylactically during an outbreak or epidemic and can reduce the severity and duration of symptoms average reduction in duration with all agents, one day when administered within hours after the onset of illness.

An international network for influenza surveillance was established by the World Health Organization in Now consisting of centers in 83 countries, the network monitors influenza activity worldwide, facilitates rapid identification of viral strains, and provides information used in determining the composition of influenza vaccines. How flu is passing? What can I do? The virus the creature that cause flu is spread in secretions from the nose, mouth etc, and children may be infective even days before they actually have visible disease.

However, simple measures, such as covering the nose and mouth while sneezing or coughing and washing hands thoroughly may minimize the transmission of the flu from child to child. Who Should Receive the Flu Vaccine? Should I go get vaccinated for the flu?

I have been told it is advised only for certain people, so who should receive this vaccine? Influenza Definition Usually referred to as the flu or grippe, influenza is a highly infectious respiratory disease. The disease is caused by certain strains of the influenza virus. When the virus is inhaled, it attacks cells in the upper respiratory tract, causing typical flu symptoms such as fatigue , fever and chills, a hacking cough , and body aches.

Influenza victims are also susceptible to potentially life-threatening secondary infections. Although the stomach or intestinal “flu” is commonly blamed for stomach upsets and diarrhea , the influenza virus rarely causes gastrointestinal symptoms. Such symptoms are most likely due to other organisms such as rotavirus, Salmonella, Shigella , or Escherichia coli. The flu is considerably more debilitating than the common cold. Influenza outbreaks occur suddenly, and infection spreads rapidly.

The annual death toll attributable to influenza and its complications averages 20, in the United States alone. In the — Spanish flu pandemic, the death toll reached a staggering million worldwide. Approximately , of these fatalities occurred in America. Influenza outbreaks occur on a regular basis. The most serious outbreaks are pandemics, which affect millions of people worldwide and last for several months. The — influenza outbreak serves as the primary example of an influenza pandemic.

Pandemics also occurred in and with the Asian flu and Hong Kong flu, respectively. The Asian flu was responsible for 70, deaths in the United States, while the Hong Kong flu killed 34, The Russian flu in the winter of is an example of an epidemic.

A regional epidemic is shorter lived than a pandemic, lasting only several weeks. Finally, there are smaller outbreaks each winter that are confined to specific locales.

The earliest existing descriptions of influenza were written nearly years ago by the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. Historically, influenza was ascribed to a number of different agents, including “bad air” and several different bacteria.

In fact, its name comes from the Italian word for “influence,” because people in eighteenth-century Europe thought that the disease was caused by the influence of bad weather. It was not until that the causative agent was identified as a virus. There are three types of influenza viruses, identified as A, B, and C. Influenza A can infect a range of animal species, including humans, pigs, horses, and birds, but only humans are infected by types B and C.

Influenza A is responsible for most flu cases, while infection with types B and C virus are less common and cause a milder illness. Flu-related deaths have increased substantially in the United States since the s, largely because of the aging of the American population. In addition, elderly persons are vulnerable because they are often reluctant to be vaccinated against flu.

A new concern regarding influenza is the possibility that hostile groups or governments could use the virus as an agent of bioterrorism. A report published in early noted that Type A influenza virus has a high potential for use as such an agent because of the virulence of the Type A strain that broke out in Hong Kong in and the development of laboratory methods for generating large quantities of the virus.

The report recommended the stockpiling of present antiviral drugs and speeding up the development of new ones. Approximately one to four days after infection with the influenza virus, the victim is hit with an array of symptoms. As the fever subsides, nasal congestion and a sore throat become noticeable.

Flu victims feel extremely tired and weak and may not return to their normal energy levels for several days or even a couple of weeks. Influenza complications usually arise from bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract. Signs of a secondary respiratory infection often appear just as the victim seems to be recovering. These signs include high fever, intense chills, chest pains associated with breathing, and a productive cough with thick yellowish green sputum.

If these symptoms appear, medical treatment is necessary. Other secondary infections, such as sinus or ear infections, may also require medical intervention. Heart and lung problems, and other chronic diseases, can be aggravated by influenza, which is a particular concern with elderly patients. With children and teenagers, it is advisable to be alert for symptoms of Reye’s syndrome, a rare, but serious complication.

Symptoms of Reye’s syndrome are nausea and vomiting , and more seriously, neurological problems such as confusion or delirium. The syndrome has been associated with the use of aspirin to relieve flu symptoms. Although there are specific tests to identify the flu virus strain from respiratory samples, doctors typically rely on a set of symptoms and the presence of influenza in the community for diagnosis.

Specific tests are useful to determine the type of flu in the community, but they do little for individual treatment. Doctors may administer tests, such as throat cultures, to identify secondary infections.

Since , however, seven rapid diagnostic tests for flu have become commercially available. These tests appear to be especially useful in diagnosing flu in children, allowing doctors to make more accurate treatment decisions in less time. Essentially, a bout of influenza must be allowed to run its course.

Symptoms can be relieved with bed rest and by keeping well hydrated. A steam vaporizer may make breathing easier, and pain relievers will take care of the aches and pain. Food may not seem very appetizing, but an effort should be made to consume nourishing food. Recovery should not be pushed too rapidly.

Returning to normal activities too quickly invites a possible relapse or complications. Since influenza is a viral infection, antibiotics are useless in treating it. However, antibiotics are frequently used to treat secondary infections. Over-the-counter medications are used to treat flu symptoms, but it is not necessary to purchase a medication marketed specifically for flu symptoms.

Any medication that is designed to relieve symptoms, such as pain and coughing, will provide some relief. Medications containing alcohol, however, should be avoided because of the dehydrating effects of alcohol. The best medicine for symptoms is simply an analgesic, such as aspirin, acetaminophen , or naproxen. Without a doctor’s approval, aspirin is generally not recommended for people under 18 owing to its association with Reye’s syndrome, a rare aspirin-associated complication seen in children recovering from the flu.

To be on the safe side, children should receive acetaminophen or ibuprofen to treat their symptoms. There are four antiviral drugs marketed for treating influenza as of To be effective, treatment should begin no later than two days after symptoms appear. Antivirals may be useful in treating patients who have weakened immune systems or who are at risk for developing serious complications.

They include amantadine Symmetrel, Symadine and rimantadine Flumandine , which work against Type A influenza, and zanamavir Relenza and oseltamavir phosphate Tamiflu , which work against both Types A and B influenza. Amantadine and rimantadine can cause side effects such as nervousness, anxiety , lightheadedness, and nausea. Severe side effects include seizures, delirium, and hallucination, but are rare and are nearly always limited to people who have kidney problems, seizure disorders, or psychiatric disorders.

The new drugs zanamavir and oseltamavir phosphate have few side effects but can cause dizziness , jitters, and insomnia. There are several alternative treatments that may help in fighting off the virus and recovering from the flu, in addition to easing flu symptoms.


What does grip mean – what does grip mean:. Look up a word, learn it forever.

The sentence contains offensive content. View in context. Click on a collocation to see more examples of it. Essential American English.


What does GRIP mean? – SimpleDefinitions.Grip – definition of grip by The Free Dictionary


First Known Use of grip Verb before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1 Noun before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a.

Learn More About grip. Time Traveler for grip The first known use of grip was before the 12th century See more words from the same century.

Style: MLA. More Definitions for grip. Kids Definition of grip Entry 1 of 2. Kids Definition of grip Entry 2 of 2. Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary. Unpredictable Swift Relentless Slow. Test your visual vocabulary with our question challenge!

That suitcase is heavy, so grip the handle firmly. The glue will begin to grip within five minutes. After a few slips, the tires gripped the pavement. To help or assist, particularly in an emotional sense. To trench ; to drain. A hold or way of holding, particularly with the hand. It’s good to have a firm grip when shaking hands. A handle or other place to grip. The grip of a sword. A channel cut through a grass verge especially for the purpose of draining water away from the highway.

Assistance ; help or encouragement. A helpful , interesting , admirable , or inspiring person. A device for grasping or holding fast to something. To grip is defined as to take or hold something firmly.

Archaic spelling of grippe : Influenza , flu. I need to get a grip of nails for my project. Other Word Forms Noun Singular:. Idioms and Phrasal Verbs come to grips. Origin of grip. Middle English from Old English gripe grasp gripa handful. More at groop. Vaccines should be received two to six weeks prior to the onset of flu season to allow the body enough time to establish immunity.

Adults only need one dose of the yearly vaccine, but children under nine years of age who have not previously been immunized should receive two doses with a month between each dose. Each season’s flu vaccine contains three virus strains that are the most likely to be encountered in the coming flu season. Because immune response diminishes somewhat with age, people over 65 may not receive the same level of protection from the vaccine, but even if they do contract the flu, the vaccine diminishes the severity and helps prevent complications.

The virus strains used to make the vaccine are inactivated and will not cause the flu. In the past, flu symptoms were associated with vaccine preparations that were not as highly purified as modern vaccines, not to the virus itself.

This association occurred only with the swine flu vaccine preparation and has never recurred. Serious side effects with modern vaccines are extremely unusual. Some people experience a slight soreness at the point of injection, which resolves within a day or two. People who have never been exposed to influenza, particularly children, may experience one to two days of a slight fever, tiredness, and muscle aches. These symptoms start within hours after the vaccination.

It should be noted that certain people should not receive an influenza vaccine. Infants six months and younger have immature immune systems and will not benefit from the vaccine. Since the vaccines are prepared using hen eggs, people who have severe allergies to eggs or other vaccine components should not receive the influenza vaccine. As an alternative, they may receive a course of amantadine or rimantadine, which are also used as a protective measure against influenza. Other people who might receive these drugs are those that have been immunized after the flu season has started or who are immunocompromised, such as people with advanced HIV disease.

Certain groups are strongly advised to be vaccinated because they are at increased risk for influenza-related complications:. All people 65 years and older Residents of nursing homes and chronic-care facilities, regardless of age Adults and children who have chronic heart or lung problems, such as asthma Adults and children who have chronic metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and renal dysfunction, as well as severe anemia or inherited hemoglobin disorders Children and teenagers who are on long-term aspirin therapy.

Women who will be in their second or third trimester during flu season or women who are nursing Anyone who is immunocompromised, including HIV-infected persons, cancer patients, organ transplant recipients, and patients receiving steroids, chemotherapy , or radiation therapy Anyone in contact with the above groups, such as teachers, care givers, health-care personnel, and family members Travelers to foreign countries.

A person need not be in one of the at-risk categories listed above, however, to receive a flu vaccination. Anyone who wants to forego the discomfort and inconvenience of an influenza attack may receive the vaccine. As of early , researchers are working on developing an intranasal flu vaccine in aerosol form. An aerosol vaccine using a weakened form of Type A influenza virus has been tested in pilot studies and awaits further clinical trials.

Beers, Mark H. Pelletier, Kenneth R. Elkins, Rita. Jonas, W. Kaptchuk, and K. Krug, R. Oxford, J. Bossuyt, S. Balasingam, et al. Roth, Y. Chapnik, and P.

Shortridge, K. Peiris, and Y. Storch, G. Thompson, W. Shay, E. Weintraub, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bioterrorism — The intentional use of disease-causing microbes or other biologic agents to intimidate or terrorize a civilian population for political or military reasons.

Type A influenza virus could be used as an agent of bioterrorism. Common cold — A mild illness caused by a upper respiratory viruses. Usual symptoms include nasal congestion, coughing, sneezing, throat irritation, and a low-grade fever. Epidemic — A widespread regional disease outbreak. Pandemic — Worldwide outbreak of an infection, afflicting millions of victims. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Called also grippe and flu. Three different genera of viruses have been discovered that cause influenza, called Influenzavirus A, B , and C species names influenza A virus , influenza B virus , and influenza C virus. Influenza B and influenza C viruses are chiefly associated with sporadic epidemics among children and young adults.

Most older adults carry antibodies against influenza because of repeated exposure to the viruses. Subtypes of influenza A virus are designated based on the antigens hemagglutinin and neuraminidase ; because they can undergo antigenic shift they are responsible for widespread epidemics. Influenza has a short incubation period. Symptoms appear suddenly, and although the virus enters the respiratory tract it soon affects the entire body. The symptoms include fever, chills, headache, sore throat, cough, gastrointestinal disturbances, muscular pain, and neuralgia.

There is no drug that will cure influenza, but over-the-counter medications may minimize discomfort. The influenza ; grippe. A firm grasp or clutch. Always , as long as life was in her ; always, whether she worked or laughed , cried or played ; always that voice would grip her heart and play upon it and lead her whether she would or no. Of course she lost her grip on little Miss Fuzzytail, who hadn’t been hurt so much as frightened. Peter Rabbit”, Thornton W.


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